Thursday, 21 November 2019, 05:23

Pronunciation



There are 35 finals in Chinese. Six of them are simple finals (a, e, i, o, u, ). The other 29 are compound finals (18 single-syllables and 11 double-syllables). The following table shows all the finals.

Finals     a  o  e  i  u    ai  ei  ui  ao  ou  iu  ie  e  er  an  en  in  un  n  ang  eng  ing  ong

The following are six simple finals (vowels): a, o, e, i, u and .

"a"

"o"

"e"

"i" as in bee or cheese

"u"

""

In zi, ci, si, zhi, chi, shi and ri the i is not pronounced. It indicates that the consonant only is pronounced.
e.g. zi = "ds" as in beds or does, ci = "c" as in cats, ri = "r" as in right or rose.

When there is no initial before the final i, add y before the final i.
i yi

When there is no initial before the final u, add w before the final u.
u wu

When there is no initial before a final started with u, change u into w.
ua wa, uai wai, uan wan, uang wang

When there is no initial before the final or a final started with in a syllable, add y before the final. The two dots above are dropped.
yu, e yue

When the final or a final started with is preceded by j, q, x, the two dots above are dropped.
j ju, q qu, x xu, jn jun, je jue
Contrast: l lu, n nu

 

The following are 18 single-syllable compound finals.

"ai" as in by or letter I

"ei" as in bay, day or letter A

"ui"

"ao"

"ou" as in go or letter O

"iu"

"ie" as in yes

"e"

"er" as in sister or water (American pronunciation) and cannot be combined with an initial

"an" as an

"en"

"in"

"un"

"n"

"ang"

"eng"

"ing"

"ong"

When preceded by initials, the finals uei, iou and uen are shortened as ui, iu and un respectively.
iou iu:   jiu, qiu, xiu, diu
uei ui:   tui, gui, zhui, sui
uen un:   lun, kun, dun, shun

 

The following are 11 double-syllable compound finals.

"ia"

"iao"

"ian"

"iang"

"iong"

"ua"

"uo"

"uai"

"uan"

"uang"

"an"

When there is no initial before a final started with i, except for in and ing, we change i into y.
iao yao, iou you
When there is no initial before final in and ing, add y before the final.
in yin, ing ying

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